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by Don Kennedy, Ph.D., P.Eng., IntPE, CPEM, FASEM
I was recently surprised by a client who was pushing to spend more to finish a construction project during a winter cold snap. When asked for a reason, the response was one that I had heard many times decades ago: “In January the money dries up.”
Some organizations manage tight budgets by using a time limit on the availability of scarce financial resources. A manager is given an allotment of funds to spend however they deem appropriate for a specific purpose, but only until the end of a fiscal cycle. Then new moneys become available for new specific purposes in the next fiscal cycle.
An analogy I have often used is to imagine if personal spending was treated this way. Your child comes home with broken teeth from a playground incident. You look at the crying child and announce, “We have funds allocated this year for a new home sound system. We have no funds set aside for teeth. Next year we will see if we can afford orthodontics, but for now we are going to the store for the sound system.” No one could afford to operate this way, so why do some companies still have fixed budget cycles?
At the ASEM conferences, I have heard a lot of stories of the suboptimal spending that comes from annual budgets. In one case, a delivery truck would pull up to the engineering office near the end of the cut off for funds. It was filled with especially high priced electronics devices their projects typically require. The company rules were that items had to be delivered by the end of the cycle. The engineers had funds to buy instruments they knew they would need, but the funds would evaporate within days. It was better for them to pay double for items now than to try and get new approval to buy them for much less later.
Many organizations base the new year's budget on the previous year's spending. If you are a manager and you save too much money, you are penalized by cuts to help support the manager who overspent the year before. People who read this publication include those who can now, or will in the future, influence organizational policies. Please do not just accept annual budget cycles as the way your team operates.
Dr. Don Kennedy, a fellow of ASEM, has been a regular attendee of the ASEM conference since 1999, with particularly good participation at the informal late evening "discussions" (sometimes making it difficult to get to the morning plenaries). “Improving Your Life at Work” is Don Kennedy's ebook which includes a lengthy bibliography for people looking for references on management theory.
by William Daughton, PhD, FASEM, Former ASEM Executive Director
We often think of leadership in terms of the “great man or woman” theory or as something reserved for presidents and CEOs. However, individuals in positions of authority at all levels in an organization have leadership as well as management responsibilities. In terms of technical, human, and conceptual skills of a leader, the proportion associated with human skills is just as large at the technical group level as it is for top management. So, what form of leadership can be exercised at the technical group level which can positively affect the individual contributors?
There are several things which could be done, but one of the most effective is described by the Path-Goal Theory of leadership. The reason that this theory is useful at this level of supervision is that the supervised population is typically comprised of very motivated individuals highly focused on completing their technical work or projects and who are easily frustrated by the lack of clear goals, various obstacles to success, and poor support. Path-Goal Theory addresses all of these issues. This approach to leadership is not only theoretical but also pragmatic and can be readily exercised by the technical group leader.
Pragmatically, the theory forces the leader to understand the needs of the group members by asking the following questions:
What obstacles do the group members face in completing their work? Little is more frustrating than wanting to achieve success but being prevented from achieving it by obstacles which unnecessarily get in the way. These can include inadequate tools, poor training, lack of equipment or facilities, and a very important one, poor coordination with other groups or individuals upon which the work depends. A leader must be sensitive to these potential obstacles, anticipate them if possible, and certainly resolve them quickly if they arise.
These three questions really focus on the needs of the technical contributors. Pragmatic application of the theory leads to strong motivation, reduced frustration, and a real sense of accomplishment. In its simplest sense, this theory provides a way for the technical supervisor to guide individual contributors along a path to success.
Dr. Daughton has been involved in Engineering Management education for over 20 years. He was the Lockheed Martin Professor and Program Director of the Lockheed Martin Engineering Management program at the University of Colorado - Boulder. He then moved to Missouri S&T where he was chair of the Engineering Management and Systems Engineering Department. While there, his department hosted an ASEM Conference in Springfield, MO. Moving back to Colorado, he took a position as the Director of Extended Studies in the College of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Colorado - Colorado Springs. The programs in extended studies included Engineering Management.
He held the position of ASEM Executive Director and is an ASEM Fellow. He has an ASEM service award named in his honor. Dr. Daughton had extensive experience in technical management in the semiconductor industry before moving to academia. He holds a Ph.D. in solid-state physics with emphasis in electronic materials. He continues to teach online graduate courses for Missouri S&T and UCCS in engineering leadership and case study analysis.
As we approach the festive season, I have been thinking that we often hear about global challenges. Climate change and global warning usually comes towards the top of the list. This is because of the need to tackle the rising global temperature caused by greenhouse gases and principally through the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions.
Indeed, the United Nations (UN) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has warned that we only have about 10 years remaining to ensure the global temperature does not exceed a 1.5°C increase, which if it does, could lead to a range of serious consequences for the world, including greater risks of floods and drought as well as more extremes of weather and further negative consequences. But there are other global challenges too. An increasing trend of people migrating to cities and the resulting overcrowding and other social issues. The rising cost of healthcare. The need to become more sustainable and reduce the amount of waste generated by society. The list goes on.
On this matter, the UN has set out the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These global goals were adopted by all member states of the UN in 2015, and they can be regarded as a universal call of action for countries and people to work together in order to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure all people can live a healthy and peaceful life by 2030. There are 17 SDGs, ranging from ‘Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere’, through to ‘Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development’. The figure bellow provides an overview of the SDGs.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – courtesy of the United Nations
The question is, why have I started this newsletter introduction with a discussion of global challenges and the SDGs? The answer is that achieving these goals will of course require many actions, and by many people, but there will also be many cases and situations where engineering managers and the discipline of engineering management can help. This could be through, for instance, using systems engineering to improve our understanding of the move to a circular economy as well as the need for more renewable forms of energy. Or devising techno-economic models to measure the performance of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS), and understanding how to manage large infrastructure projects more sustainably. As engineering managers, including researchers, students and practitioners, we are developing the supporting knowledge, tools and techniques to work alongside others and tackle the SDGs head-on. Although these global goals are certainly challenges they can also represent opportunities that we can pursue through applying our engineering management knowledge and tools.
Finally, as we head towards the festive period, I hope that you can all have some time with family and friends. Where possible spend time away from the daily pressures of work and other commitments, so that you can be rested and recharged to tackle the challenges and goals for 2020.
Simon Philbin, ASEM President
Collaboration: How Leaders Avoid the Traps, Build Common Ground, and Reap Big Resultsby Morten T. Hansen. Harvard Business Review Press (2009). 256 pages.
US$26.95 (hardcover). ISBN: 978-1-4221151-5-2
Reviewed by Larry Mallak, Ph.D., Fellow, ASEM; Professor, Western Michigan University
If you need a resource on how to improve collaboration in your organization, skip the airport books. Save yourself the hassle of poring through countless journal articles that explore one small set of variables in a constrained setting or geography. Morten Hansen has been studying collaboration ever since he conducted his doctoral research at H-P in the mid-1990s. Along the way, he has taken an engineering approach to collaboration, despite his B-school cred that would suggest otherwise.
Many of us engineers and engineering management types like to use analytical and quantitative techniques when we investigate a problem, even a social science problem. Ever since I read Ellen Langer’s “The Illusion of Control” while working on my master’s thesis at Virginia Tech, I’ve also become intrigued by the use of informal analytical techniques—essentially engineering estimation—applied to social science-based problems. Langer’s work got me thinking about the false uniformity of precision garnered by highly-quantified models and techniques, such as operations research and other forms of mathematical modeling. Not that there’s anything wrong with that, as Seinfeld would say. It’s just that when we want to achieve better outcomes in our organizations, we can’t wait for big modeling efforts or wade through complex mathematical models that may or may not match the assumptions of our workplaces. We need to “Pareto” to a few better outcomes, rather than strive for the optimal outcome.
Which brings us to Hansen. Rather than drag us through highly-constrained models, Hansen offers a few “back-of-the-envelope” simulations to make his points regarding how to improve outcomes with disciplined collaboration. He bashes popular business myths with data from case studies and formulates business-y equations that make sense to those of us seeking to make change now. For example, he dispels the notion that networking is always good and that those who have the largest number of contacts are in the best position. He even acknowledges that Gladwell makes this statement in his classic “The Tipping Point.” However, Hansen argues that those with many contacts often spend far more time cultivating those relationships rather than using the network to solve problems and “bridge” to necessary information. He calls these people “butterflies,” because they flit from one place to another without accomplishing a whole lot. At the other extreme, “lone stars” are self-appointed heroes who single handedly solve problems, not asking for, looking for, or accepting help from others.
Hansen calls for “T-shaped” managers; these are managers who “simultaneously deliver results in their own job (the vertical part of the ‘T’) and deliver results by collaborating across the company (the horizontal part of the ‘T’)” (Hansen, 2009, pp. 95-96). Southwest Airlines uses this concept when applicants are asked to stand up and read a short statement about themselves. Those who support others through listening, paying attention to them, and cheering are considered aligned with the Southwest culture. Many applicants think it’s merely a public speaking test.
A collaborative leader, according to Hansen, believes in and role models three distinct behaviors:
Hansen shares a case study of Arnold Schwarzenegger and how he used these behaviors in his role as governor of California.
Rather than just sharing his insights and wishing us well, Hansen includes several tools in this book that can be used to build better collaborations. He has a companion “Collaboration Toolkit” that can be purchased separately. Some of the tools are contained in his book and can be readily used. However, if you want a more detailed analysis of collaboration and have a decent budget, the toolkit may be the way to go.
Collaboration doesn’t have to be a mysterious concept that stays conceptual. With Hansen (and others), we can take tangible steps to improve how we lead, follow, and participate in collaborative efforts.
Hansen, M.T. 2009. Collaboration: How Leaders Avoid the Traps, Create Unity, and Reap Big Results. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hansen, M.T. 2019. The Collaboration Toolkit: Tools adapted from the Book "Collaboration: How Leaders Avoid the Traps, Create Unity, and Reap Big Results." [Available: https://hbsp.harvard.edu/product/1463TK-PDF-ENG].
Dr. Larry Mallak is an industrial engineer whose work on corporate ethnography is bringing new tools to balance the art and science of new product development. He’s a Professor of Industrial and Entrepreneurial Engineering & Engineering Management at Western Michigan University. Prior to his university appointment, he worked in Charlotte, North Carolina, for Premier Healthcare and he has worked as a science reporter for National Public Radio. His work has been featured in numerous outlets, including TEDx, Engineering Management Journal, WORK, and Industrial Management. He holds Ph.D. and M.S. degrees in Industrial & Systems Engineering from Virginia Tech, with a B.S. in Industrial Engineering from the University of Illinois. Dr. Mallak is a Fellow of ASEM.
by Teresa Jurgens-Kowal, PhD, PE, CPEMGlobal NP SolutionsBuilding Innovation Leaders
What do you think about networking? If you’re like most engineers, the word networking suggests images of pushy people shaking your hand, shoving a business card at you, and then walking away. You might think that expert networkers fall pretty close to used car salesmen and greedy life insurance agents. Yet becoming a strategic networker is important for your career and growth as an engineer, engineering manager, and professional in general.
A common misunderstanding is that networking is attendance at an event followed by the exchange of business cards. Networking is much, much more than business cards. Of course, you should always have a professional business card, including your contact information, available to share with people as you meet them (and only if they ask for it). But the business card is only the beginning of a networking relationship.
Networking is really about building long-term relationships and helping other people. You can network with people inside your organization and external to your company. Often, as engineers and engineering managers, we build relationships with people that share a common interest, such as in the American Society of Engineering Management. Our relationships with other people include things we have in common, such as an interest in learning and growing as technical leaders. Thus, networking is creating a relationship with like-minded people and diverse individuals that will last over the long run.
With a mythical image of slimy characters trying to get us to buy something we don’t need, it’s hard to see why we should network. Yet, when you understand that networking is a professional skill, you will understand that it’s important to build long-term relationships with a variety of people. People use networking to build their knowledge and influence, for example.
When we meet different people in diverse settings, and especially when we meet new people that share a common interest, we can learn new information. Networking at events like ASEM’s annual conference leads to collaborative research and creative resources. Often, the simple act of talking to someone new about a favorite topic will yield new insights to tools, techniques, and applications. While many of us know a lot about one subject area, networking allows us to expand our understanding of the topic, especially in adjacent and tangential arenas.
Networking also provides an opportunity to influence the discussion and direction in your field of study. As an example, by attending networking events and getting to know different people, I have been presented with speaking opportunities leading to new insights on topics within my field of expertise. Talking about my favorite subject to a group of people who are largely unfamiliar with the topic enables me to reframe and simplify my assumptions as well as to openly share my personal opinions and experiences. Being presented with a chance to learn different perspectives and viewpoints through networking increases your own knowledge and allows you to influence others.
If someone asked me, “When should I be networking?” My answer is: “All the time.” Too many people decide that it’s time to network when they are laid off from their job or the economy faces a downturn. This is the short game of networking, resulting in an ugly clamor for business cards from the single person at an event who is hiring. Because networking is about planting and nourishing the seeds of a relationship, it is no surprise that few people reap positive outcomes from attending one event and flashing around their newly printed business cards.
You will want to meet people whenever and however you can. Get to know them by asking pertinent questions and actively listening to their responses. Find the common ground – do you both have a history in the oil and gas industry? Maybe you both have industrial engineering degrees or are wondering about pursuing your CPEM credential. Pay attention to the other person’s passions and purpose. In five or ten years, you may be in the position of the hiring manager and by playing the long game, you’ll have a great candidate in mind because of the relationship you’ve built through common interests.
The first key to strategic networking is to remember that you are trying to build a relationship with another person. Often, other people beginning with networking skills feels just as awkward as you do. My goal at networking events is simply to meet one new person. Because I am an introvert, I can be too quiet in larger groups and will not make connections with people. So, I intentionally look for another person who is also standing or sitting alone. With a deep breath, I approach and ask if I can join them.
Next, I ask why they are attending the event. This simple question can create a wonderful conversation and start to build our relationship on common ground. Maybe they came to the event because they thought the topic was interesting or they know the speaker. Affirm your reasons for attending the event and ask more questions. But, remember it’s not an inquisition – you are seeking to identify shared professional interests and create the seed of a relationship.
You want to build relationships within your organization, with people who share your education and trade, and with people that have diverse interests. If you come to a time in your life when you need a new job or help with a research paper, all these people will be great resources. It’s fairly easy to build a relationship with co-workers while working on a project together. Yet, you also want to consider creating ties with people in your organization that work in different departments and have different functional duties than you do. When you are in a leadership position, you’ll need to assemble a team of skilled individuals that you can trust, and people within your organizational network will be prime candidates!
Of course, networking at ASEM’s IAC and other engineering conferences is a great way to build technical relationships. Don’t forget that you can create professional relationships with people at organizations where you volunteer, or you share hobbies. I recently expanded my network by chatting with someone at the gym while we sweated on adjacent elliptical trainers. We connected even though I only had a crumpled-up business card at the bottom of my backpack. Our professional relationship is growing based on common technical interests and experiences.
LinkedIn is also a tremendous place to network. After every in-person networking event I attend, I try to connect with people I’ve met on LinkedIn. There I can learn more about their educational background and work experience to further our relationship. LinkedIn makes it super easy to congratulate people on promotions and say “Happy Birthday” on their special day.
Social media offers tools to search for people working in industries, companies, or jobs about which you might want to learn more. You can follow the activity of others and learn what is “hot” in your area of expertise. By commenting on articles posted on LinkedIn, you continue to build your own reputation while you build relationships with people who share common interests.
First, don’t be afraid to network. Erase any assumption that networking is a distasteful practice of shoving business cards at other people. Strategic networking is about building relationships with interesting people.
Second, identify an event where you can comfortably test your networking skills. ASEM is a great place to network with other engineers and engineering managers. You can test ideas, learn, and influence the field of study. As you build relationships with other ASEM members, you will find that networking becomes easier in both face-to-face and online situations.
Next, create an action plan for attending networking events. Identify someone you’d like to meet by reviewing the roster in advance or by finding another person who looks as awkward as you might feel. Ask short and simple questions about the event, seeking common ground. Don’t be discouraged if the other person doesn’t respond enthusiastically. They might just be feeling grumpy that day, or they really are checking in with the babysitter on their mobile device.
Connect with people you’ve met or admired on Linked In. Start with me at linkedin.com/in/teresajurgenskowal/ or Annmarie, ASEM’s Communications Director at linkedin.com/in/annmarieuliano/. Follow organizations (like ASEM), companies, and people that are interesting to you. Like and comment on articles and share good wishes with people who are celebrating birthdays or work anniversaries. It is risk-free to start with LinkedIn’s automated suggestions, but you should build your confidence in networking by adding your own unique comments to posts and articles.
Finally, remember above all that networking is about building relationships. If you promise to contact someone or do something for them, keep your word. Be polite, professional, and engaging. It’s always safe to listen more than you talk, and it is totally okay to leave a networking event with zero business cards!
It is an honor to be serving as the President of ASEM for the coming year. I believe that our society has so much to offer. Not only do we possess a large part of the supporting knowledge base for the discipline of engineering management, which includes theoretical foundations as well as industrial applications, but we are also involved in the delivery of many excellent products and services that help people who manage in technology-driven organizations. As engineers progress through their career and some decide to move into management, ASEM can provide support through the engineering management knowledge and products but also crucially through access to a network of like-minded individuals. This can help engineers, as well as other STEM professionals, to make the transition from being a technical specialist to a manager. ASEM has of course its traditional reach across USA but for many years there has been an international dimension to the profile and work of the society – including participation in the ASEM International Annual Conferences as well as involvement of international people in the work of the society (including myself and others). ASEM is therefore in a good position to serve the needs of engineering managers across academic knowledge and industrial dimensions as well as from an international perspective.
In October we held the International Annual Conference in Philadelphia, which as usual was another resounding success. In fact this year was the 40th annual conference, which again benefited from an excellent range of technical papers and sessions as well as inspirational keynote presentations and other activities. I would like to thank the host conference team from Drexel and Temple Universities, including Julie Drzymalski, Richard Grandrino and Chris Morse, for their excellent work organizing the conference. I would also like to thank both the technical program team and logistics team for the conference, including Ean Ng, Heather Keathley, Libby Schott, Caroline Krejci, Kenneth McDonald and Greg Sedrick, for their efforts to ensure the high technical quality of the conference and that the logistics ran smoothly. The ASEM world headquarters contributes significantly to the conference and wider operations of the society and I would therefore like to acknowledge Paul Kauffmann, Gene Dixon and Angie Cornelius for all their efforts.
ASEM is a volunteer society and I would like to thank all of those involved in the work of the society, including those who serve on the board of directors. Recently and over the last year, Frances Alston, Patricia Anzalone, Neal Lewis, Peter McKenny, Charles Daniels and Dock Clavon, have stepped down from the board of directors and I would like to acknowledge their service. I would like to welcome our new members of the board of directors (either new to the board or in new positions), including Greg Sedrick, Ruwen Qin, Jena Asgarpoor, Elizabeth Gibson, Bill Schell, Ona Egbue, Gana Natarajan, James Enos, Mike Parrish and Patricia McDonald. I would also like to offer a special thank you to Suzie Long, who recently completed her annual term as President and provided excellent leadership for the society to ensure its continued success.
Looking forward for the next year, I am excited to be leading the society as it continues to develop and deliver the various activities and initiatives. If you would like to become more involved in the work of the society, please do let me know. Finally, I would like to finish by repeating a message I gave at the closing of the conference evening dinner in Philadelphia – the message was that it is a great time to be an engineering manager – helping to tackle a range of societal and industrial challenges that exist as well as pursuing many technological opportunities. ASEM is well positioned to support engineering managers in such endeavors and through being a member of the society we can all be part of this journey.
From SOS to WOW!: Your Personal Coaching Adventure by Margaret A. Johnson, PE, MBA
SWOW Publishing (2016). 317 pages.
US$21.95 (soft cover). ISBN: 978-0-9981295-1-8
As engineers and engineering managers we are rewarded daily with challenging work. We have the opportunity to influence people, communities, and economies through science and technology. Our work changes lives by making products available to people and by improving processes to be more sustainable and environmentally friendly.
Yet we can get so caught up in our work that we fail to work on ourselves. We can get stuck in a rut and before you know it, dreams have become hopes of the past. Margaret Johnson’s book, “From SOS to WOW,” helps engineers and engineering managers to take concrete steps to move from being stuck in the “Same Old Stuff” (SOS) to “Well on the Way” (WOW).
The subtitle of “From SOS to WOW” is “Your Personal Coaching Adventure”. To really make a difference in your personal or professional life, you should dedicate time to completing the many exercises and thought experiments included in Margaret’s book. The layout is especially clever, giving the reader space to write, journal, and consider plans to move from the current state to a promotion or other goal in life.
After an Introduction, Chapters 1 and 2 describe how managers can increase their self-awareness to recognize what might be holding them back from their next step. Exercises in Chapters 1 and 2 are centered around a gap analysis to determine where you are today and where you want to be. Many of these tools have origins in strategy development for organizations seeking growth.
Chapters 3 and 4 discuss motivation and goal setting, both topics also having roots in innovation and strategic alignment. In particular, Johnson discusses fear as a barrier to change. We can apply some of the tools from this section of the book beyond personal growth to help our engineering teams recognize when fear is holding them back from creative growth within organizational processes.
Chapters 6 through 10 offer a series of stories and exercises designed for action planning. For example, Chapter 6 discusses the myth of multitasking and the benefits of focused work. We can increase efficiency and productivity by checking email and social media less frequently. (See a related book review on Deep Work by Cal Newport.)
I especially enjoyed Chapter 7 on busting assumptions. Margaret’s in-person keynote presentations bring home the point that our assumptions can limit our capabilities and creativity. The chapter further provides exercises to investigate which assumptions hold back personal and professional growth.
Finally, Chapters 11 and 12 teach that no journey of improvement ends. As engineers and engineering managers, we know that quality is a result of continuous improvement. We also know that setbacks and failures are part of the trouble-shooting process to improve operations. We should expect the same as we continuously improve our personal and professional lives.
“From SOS to WOW” is folksy and easy to read. You can hear Margaret’s voice in your head as you skim the words on the pages. Although the book is short, you don’t want to skimp on investing time and energy in completing the exercises in the chapters. You should start the book with a specific challenge in mind from a work team or professional growth goal (e.g. I want a promotion) and be diligent to create an action plan.
Teresa Jurgens-Kowal, PE, CPEM, PMP®, NPDP, is a passionate lifelong learner. She enjoys helping individuals and companies improve their innovation programs and loves scrapbooking. You can learn more about Teresa and her new Innovation MasterMind group by connecting on LinkedIn.
by Woodrow W. Winchester, III, PhD, CPEM
As an engineering management educator, I echo President Simon Philbin’s sentiment, expressed during his closing remarks at the ASEM 2019 International Annual Conference (IAC) banquet, that “this is a great time to be an engineering manager”. This statement, for me, is affirmed in my work that promotes the use of more inclusive approaches in the design and management of emerging technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) products and systems. And, while the promises of these technologies are great - as witnessed in AI’s growing pervasiveness; the perils - as outcomes of often “unchecked” designs and deployments - can be even greater.
“We are in a diversity crisis,” states a recent MIT Technology Review article that examines the existence and propagation of biases in AI systems. Recent Congressional hearings on the topic of inclusion in technology have called for “the tech sector to be more proactive in developing means that reduce, or better yet, eliminate bias from newer and emerging technologies”. As I reflect on my ASEM 2019 IAC experiences, it is my belief that engineering managers can provide both thought and practice leadership in meeting this challenge. In that regard, I offer some pathways forward:
Champion inclusive design and engineering thinking. Too often considerations of diversity and inclusion are cast simply as workforce composition concerns. However, the need to think and act more inclusively in the development and deployment of technologies is equally of import in offering more inclusive technologies. Engineering managers, as technology project and product leaders within the organization, can champion and take leadership in ensuring that considerations of diversity and inclusion are appropriately interjected within the technological design life cycle.
Engage with methods, tools and techniques that support more inclusive design and engineering decision making: There are a growing number of practitioner-oriented aids to support more inclusive design and engineering. Engineering managers, as often process and practice leaders, can be active proponents in the engagement and promotion of these more inclusive approaches. Some exemplar resources are offered by Microsoft, Google, and the Inclusive Design Group at the University of Cambridge. Additionally, in the full paper that I presented at ASEM 2019 IAC, I explore the visual arts as a means to help engineers think more inclusively and consequentially in technological design.
Advocate for the development of specific engineering management diversity and inclusion practice competencies. The societal stakes are high in regard to the design and management of emerging technologies. I feel that we, as an engineering management community, are at a point where more explicit and poignant conversations and efforts around diversity and inclusion within our practices are needed (the positive reception of Thomas Edwards’ keynote on neurodiversity provides some indication of the desire for these types of conversations). By supporting these sorts of efforts, the catalyzation and articulation of engineering management competences around diversity and inclusion can be had.
Truly, this is a great time to be an engineering manager. Adequately grappling with notions of diversity and inclusion in technological design is truly both complex and multilayered. More inclusive technological design and management practices are truly needed. It is my belief that engineering managers are well positioned to offer the needed thought and practice leadership in finally moving the needle.
Woodrow W. Winchester, III, PhD, CPEM is the Director, Engineering Management at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. His teaching and scholarly activities are centered on advocating for more humanity-centered approaches to the design and management of technological systems. Winchester is a Certified Professional in Engineering Management (CPEM) with over ten (10) years of industry experiences. Active in also advancing engineering management as a practice, Winchester is currently the Co-Director, Professional Development & Continuing Education for the American Society for Engineering Management (ASEM). Woodrow is also under contract with the CRC Press to write Inclusion by Design: Future Thinking Approaches to New Product Development (ISBN: 978-0-367-41687-4); co-authored with Frances Alston, PhD, CHMM, CPEM and slated for a late 2020 release.
by Jerry Westbrook, PhD, FASEM, Professor Emeritus - University of Alabama at Huntsville
This is the second article on applications of the Guide to the Engineering Management Body of Knowledge. The primary contribution of these articles is how the EMBOK can guide the technical manager in applications. The material discussed is from Domain 2. If a practitioner focuses on Domain 2, he or she can have a successful career in technical management. The other domains in the EMBOK complement the first and second domains but primarily the second. This conclusion comes from my experience as well as many colleagues’ experiences in applying the concepts contained in the EMBOK.
The topic of the day is Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Concept (EMBOK 2.3.3.) Dr. Herzberg did a study of engineers and accountants to determine the factors associated with motivation and de-motivation. Any manager should have a good idea of those things that tend to motivate employees. They should also understand those issues that cause the opposite reaction. Most managers assume that they know these things instinctively. According to Herzberg’s research, most of these assumptions are incorrect.
Herzberg’s research found that one set of factors were associated with motivation and another set associated with de-motivation. He called the factors associated with motivation as motivators. They are, in the order of responses from subjects in the study:
Relations with supervisor
Relation with peers
According to this research, the motivators were only positive and the second group, the hygienes, were only negative. The highest motivational value of any hygiene is zero. If company policies are the best in the industry, they have zero motivation. If these policies are perceived to be unfair to one employee or to a group, they are perceived negatively.
It must be noted that managers have more control over motivators but they are difficult to administer. Hygienes do not lead to motivation but their improvement can be expensive to the company.
The following case involves an attempt to make motivators out of hygienes. Many organizations make similar efforts with similar results.
“First Fiber Glass” Company asked me to assist them in increasing their productivity and product quality. It was quickly determined that employee turnover at critical operator positions were running approximately 40% per year. The operator jobs required a great deal of agility and hand-eye coordination. The job could be dangerous as it was working with molten fiber glass at 2000 degrees C. Management relations with the union turned contentious while I was there. I was working closely with union employees attempting to make the job safer and more productive. Seeing my positive relationship with some workers, management asked me to convey a message to the union. They asked me to ask the union if they had concerns that management could address to show good faith effort to work more effectively with them. Realizing that the union would likely focus on hygienes, I suggested that management should focus on more opportunity and advancement potential for workers. Management told me that they had discussed matters and wanted to pursue the plan as explained.
I met with union leaders and explained management’s desire to demonstrate good faith. The leaders quickly pointed out that the plant floor had a buildup of binder over one inch thick. Binder is sprayed onto molten glass fibers to give them tensile strength. Some of the binder actually coats the glass fibers. The remainder falls to the floor where it accumulates. They pointed out that the binder buildup was unsanitary and unsafe and that it should be removed. I went back to management with the union response. Management was aware of the situation and readily agreed with the union’s assessment. They decided to shut the plant down for a week and remove the binder buildup. Workers were not laid off. They either participated in training or the cleanup effort. The binder had to be chipped up with power equipment. The Research and Development group suggested that a new epoxy paint might prevent the buildup from developing in the future. After the buildup removal, the plant floor was painted with a pastel green epoxy paint. Normal operations were restarted the next week.
Management asked me to meet with the union to gage the response to the cleanup effort that the union had suggested. In the meeting with the union, they readily expressed appreciation for management’s efforts to clean up the plant. They were, however, quick to point out that their shower room was in need of major repairs. The shower room was the first thing workers saw when they came to work and the last thing they saw when they left. Broken fixtures were symbols of how the company viewed its employees. They were seen to be an indication that workers were not important to the company. I brought that message back to management. Again, they agreed with the union and had the shower room completely refurbished.
Once more, hoping that the union could see that management was conciliatory, management asked me to meet with the union. The union officers were very appreciative of management’s actions. They did point out that the employee parking lot was in a state of disrepair. There were many potholes large enough to damage their cars. Again, this was their first connection with the employer when coming to work and the last before leaving work. Of course, I brought their parking lot concern to management. They readily agreed to repave the parking lot and instructed me not to meet with the union leaders again.
The union’s list of hygienes exceeded management’s resources. Management finally saw that they were not getting productive results by addressing non-production issues. Later, they did agree to open new training and lead classifications in the production departments with the greatest opportunities for improvement. This was well received by the union. Productivity, quality and morale did increase. Little connection was observed between the response by the union to these motivators and the long list of hygienes. Management was glad that production and quality had both improved and did not seem to get the connection of applying motivators when the long list of hygiene applications failed to achieve positive results.
Do the best you can with hygienes. You won’t get motivation but you will avoid serious problems. Significant long term improvements in motivation are achieved through focus on motivators: recognition, achievement, possibility of growth, advancement, responsibility and the job itself. It is counter-intuitive for a manager to respond to a request for a hygiene improvement with an analysis of the status of motivators but that is what must be done, after the hygiene request is investigated and acted on.
Dr. Westbrook has served the American Society for Engineering Management in a variety of positions. He is a past President of the society, past Executive Director and an ASEM Fellow. He founded ASEM's program to certify master's degree programs that meet ASEM program standards. He was instrumental in the founding of a master’s program in EM at the University of Tennessee and the master's and Ph.D. in engineering management at the University of Alabama in Huntsville.
His research and teaching focuses on behavioral concepts in management and the challenges of managing knowledge workers. Dr. Westbrook received his Ph.D. degree from Virginia Tech in Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, master’s degree from the University of Tennessee in Industrial Engineering and a B.E. from Vanderbilt in Electrical Engineering. In addition to ASEM, he is also a member of ASEE, IIE, and NSPE. Dr. Westbrook authored or co-authored 20+ refereed papers on engineering management topics. Dr. Westbrook has developed a series of seminars on managing knowledge workers. He and a team of talented professionals have delivered these seminars to a variety of clients in several states.
by Paul Kauffmann, PE, CPEM, FASEM, Executive Director of ASEM, Professor Emeritus at East Carolina University
How boring this subject line may appear. Let’s consider the two parts of it: PowerPoint and meeting effectiveness. Considering PowerPoint, how many times have we been instructed on the "best" way to prepare PowerPoint slides? The debates rage about critical topics: light or dark background, how cryptic to make the bullet points, what fonts are best... Debates that may never be solved in our lifetime.
What about the second part of the title, Meeting Effectiveness? We have all been through that training too, and the memories make us cringe. A web search on this topic will find countless hits with common sense suggestions: set objectives, send out an agenda, keep on topic, identify follow up and next steps, and so on. As a friend of mine commented after a training session on this topic: "That was a firm grasp of the obvious."
There is one missing element in all of this. The burden is on the meeting organizer, but what is the obligation of the attendee to contribute to meeting effectiveness? I would bet many would agree that often meeting attendees have not looked at the agenda or the slides, much less the "related report" covering key details. It is too easy to simply click "accept" on the calendar invitation and do nothing but show up. What is the solution?
Amazon has an interesting approach to solve this problem, and it was described by Jeff Bezos as "the 'smartest thing we ever did' at Amazon." A heady statement for sure. I recommend reading the full article, but I will summarize a few key points here:
In closing, let me bring a smile with some additional comments from Bezos. He thinks "…executives will bluff their way through the meeting as if they've read the memo because we're busy and so you've got to actually carve out the time for the memo to get read."
Before the memo-based meetings were instituted, Bezos also commented "we were doing the more traditional thing. A junior executive comes in, they put a huge amount of effort into developing a PowerPoint presentation, they put the third slide up, and the most senior executive in the room has already interrupted them, thrown them off their game, asking questions about what is going to be presented in slide six, if they would just stay quiet for a moment..." Further, he thinks PowerPoint slides often have "obscure information." Bezos prefers memos because each have "verbs and sentences and topic sentences and complete paragraphs."
Food for thought!
Paul Kauffmann is ASEM’s Executive Director and is Professor Emeritus at East Carolina University. Paul is a Professional Engineer and has over 20 years of industry experience in positions ranging from design engineer to plant manager and engineering director. He is a Fellow of ASEM and a Certified Professional in Engineering Management. He holds a BSEE and MENG in mechanical engineering from Virginia Tech and a PhD in industrial engineering from Penn State.
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